Adverse Impact Resources & Research
Federal Regulations & Professional Guidelines
American Educational Research Association,
American Psychological Association, & National Council for Measurement in
Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing.
American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Civil Service
Commission, Department of Labor, & Department of Justice. (1978). Uniform
guidelines on employee selection procedures. Federal Register, 43,
Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (1993).
Federal contract compliance manual. Washington, D.C.: Department of Labor,
Employment Standards Administration, Office of Federal Contract Compliance
Programs (SUDOC# L 36.8: C 76/1993).
Society for Industrial and Organizational
Psychology (2003). Principles for the validation and use of personnel
selection procedures (4th ed.) College Park, MD.
General Statistical Texts
A. (2002) Categorical Data Analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley-Interscience.
Hays, W. L. (1994) Statistics (5th ed.). New York: Holt,
Rinehart & Winston.
Moore, D. S. & McCabe, G. P. (1993). Introduction to the
Practice of Statistics (2nd ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman & Company.
Statistical Analysis of Adverse Impact
Barrett, R. S. (1998). Challenging the Myths of Fair Employment Practices.
Westport, CT: Quorum.
Biddle, D. (2005). Adverse Impact and Test Validation: A
Practitioner’s Guide to Valid and Defensible Employment Testing. England:
K. E. & Crenshaw, J. L. (2008).
Adverse impact: What is it? How do you calculate it? Tutorial presented
at the meeting of the International Public Management Association Assessment
Council, Oakland, CA.
Collins, M. W. & Morris, S. B. (2008). Testing for adverse
impact when sample size is small. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 463-471.
Ironson, G. H., Guion, R. G. (1982). Adverse
impact from a psychometric perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology,
D. H., & Aickin, M. (Eds.). (1986). Statistical Methods in
Discrimination Litigation. New York: M. Dekker.
F. J. (2005). Employment Discrimination Litigation: Behavioral, Quantitative,
and Legal Perspectives. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Lawshe, C. H. (1987). Adverse Impact: Is it a viable
concept? Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 18, 492-497.
Morris, S. B. (2001). Sample size required for adverse impact
analysis. Applied HRM Research, 6, 13-32.
Morris, S. B. & Lobsenz, R. E. (2000). Significance tests and
confidence intervals for the adverse impact ratio. Personnel Psychology, 53,
Raju, N. S., & Edwards, J. E. (1984). Note on
"adverse impact from a psychometric perspective". Journal of Applied
Psychology, 69, 191-193.
Roth, P. L., Bobko, Pl, & Switzer III, F. S. (2006), Modeling
the behavior of the 4/5ths rule for determining adverse impact: Reasons for
caution. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 507-522.
Wing, H. (1982). Statistical hazards in the
determination of adverse impact with small samples. Personnel
Psychology, 35, 153-162.
Adverse Impact of Different Types of Measures
Dean, M.A., Roth, P.L., & Bobko, P. (2008). Ethnic and gender subgroup
differences in assessment center ratings: A meta-analysis. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 88, 683-691.
Huffcutt, A.I., & Roth P.L. (1998). Racial group differences in
employment interview evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83,
Reilly, R. R. (1996). Alternative selection procedures. In R. S.
Barrett (Ed.). Fair employment strategies in human resource management.
Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Roth, P. L., BeVier, C. A., Bobko, P., Switzer, III, F. S., & Tyler, P.
(2001). Ethnic group differences in cognitive ability in employment and
educational settings: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 54,
Roth, P., Bobko, P., McFarland, L., & Buster, M. (2008). Work sample
tests in personnel selection: A meta-analysis of Black-White differences
in overall and exercise scores. Personnel Psychology, 61, 637-662.
Methods for Reducing Adverse Impact
Sackett, P. R., Schmitt, N., Ellingson, J. E., & Kabin, M. B. (2001).
High-stakes testing in employment, credentialing, and higher education:
Prospects in a post-affirmative-action world. American Psychologist,
Sackett, P. R., & Ellingson, J. E. (1997). The effects of forming
multi-predictor composites on group differences and adverse impact.
Personnel Psychology, 50, 707-721.
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