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Adverse Impact


Adverse Impact Resources & Research

Federal Regulations & Professional Guidelines

  • American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council for Measurement in Education. (1999).  Standards for educational and psychological testing.  American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Civil Service Commission, Department of Labor, & Department of Justice. (1978).  Uniform guidelines on employee selection procedures.  Federal Register, 43, 38290-38315.

  • Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (1993).  Federal contract compliance manual.  Washington, D.C.: Department of Labor, Employment Standards Administration, Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (SUDOC# L 36.8: C 76/1993).

  • Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (2003).  Principles for the validation and use of personnel selection procedures (4th ed.) College Park, MD.

General Statistical Texts

  • Agresti, A. (2002) Categorical Data Analysis (2nd ed.).  New York: Wiley-Interscience.

  • Hays, W. L. (1994) Statistics (5th ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

  • Moore, D. S. & McCabe, G. P. (1993).  Introduction to the Practice of Statistics (2nd ed.).  New York: W.H. Freeman & Company.

Statistical Analysis of Adverse Impact

  • Barrett, R. S. (1998). Challenging the Myths of Fair Employment Practices. Westport, CT: Quorum.

  • Biddle, D. (2005). Adverse Impact and Test Validation: A Practitioner’s Guide to Valid and Defensible Employment Testing.  England: Gower.

  • Brink, K. E. & Crenshaw, J. L. (2008). Adverse impact: What is it? How do you calculate it? Tutorial presented at the meeting of the International Public Management Association Assessment Council, Oakland, CA.

  • Collins, M. W. & Morris, S. B. (2008).  Testing for adverse impact when sample size is small.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 463-471.

  • Ironson, G. H., Guion, R. G. (1982). Adverse impact from a psychometric perspective.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 419-432.

  • Kaye, D. H., & Aickin, M. (Eds.). (1986).  Statistical Methods in Discrimination Litigation.  New York: M. Dekker.

  • Landy, F. J. (2005). Employment Discrimination Litigation: Behavioral, Quantitative, and Legal Perspectives.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  • Lawshe, C. H. (1987).  Adverse Impact: Is it a viable concept?  Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 18, 492-497.

  • Morris, S. B. (2001).  Sample size required for adverse impact analysis.  Applied HRM Research, 6, 13-32.

  • Morris, S. B. & Lobsenz, R. E. (2000).  Significance tests and confidence intervals for the adverse impact ratio.  Personnel Psychology, 53, 89-111.

  • Raju, N. S., & Edwards, J. E. (1984). Note on "adverse impact from a psychometric perspective".  Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 191-193.

  • Roth, P. L., Bobko, Pl, & Switzer III, F. S. (2006),  Modeling the behavior of the 4/5ths rule for determining adverse impact: Reasons for caution.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 507-522.

  • Wing, H. (1982). Statistical hazards in the determination of adverse impact with small samples.  Personnel Psychology, 35, 153-162.

Adverse Impact of Different Types of Measures

  • Dean, M.A., Roth, P.L., & Bobko, P. (2008). Ethnic and gender subgroup differences in assessment center ratings: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 683-691.

  • Huffcutt, A.I., & Roth P.L. (1998). Racial group differences in employment interview evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 179-189.

  • Reilly, R. R. (1996).  Alternative selection procedures.  In R. S. Barrett (Ed.).  Fair employment strategies in human resource management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

  • Roth, P. L., BeVier, C. A., Bobko, P., Switzer, III, F. S., & Tyler, P. (2001).  Ethnic group differences in cognitive ability in employment and educational settings: A meta-analysis.  Personnel Psychology, 54, 397-330. 

  • Roth, P., Bobko, P., McFarland, L., & Buster, M. (2008).  Work sample tests in personnel selection: A meta-analysis of Black-White differences in overall and exercise scores.  Personnel Psychology, 61, 637-662.

Methods for Reducing Adverse Impact

  • Sackett, P. R., Schmitt, N., Ellingson, J. E., & Kabin, M. B. (2001).  High-stakes testing in employment, credentialing, and higher education: Prospects in a post-affirmative-action world.  American Psychologist, 56, 302-318.

  • Sackett, P. R., & Ellingson, J. E. (1997).  The effects of forming multi-predictor composites on group differences and adverse impact.  Personnel Psychology, 50, 707-721.


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